top of page

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) Surgery

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) surgery is a procedure performed to repair a hole in the wall (septum) between the two lower chambers of the heart, known as the ventricles. VSD is a congenital heart defect where the opening allows blood to flow from the left ventricle (which has higher pressure) to the right ventricle, causing an increased workload on the right side of the heart.

The decision to perform VSD surgery depends on the size of the defect, its location, and the symptoms it causes. Small VSDs may close on their own without intervention, while larger defects or those causing significant symptoms may require surgical repair. Here is an overview of the VSD surgery process:

1. Preoperative Assessment:

  • A thorough evaluation is conducted, including medical history, physical examination, echocardiogram, and other diagnostic tests to determine the size and location of the VSD.

2. Anesthesia:

  • General anesthesia is administered to ensure the patient is unconscious and pain-free during the surgery.

3. Surgical Approaches:

  • Traditional Open-Heart Surgery:A sternotomy (incision through the breastbone) is made to access the heart.
    The heart is temporarily stopped, and the patient is placed on a heart-lung machine to take over the heart's pumping function.

  • Minimally Invasive Techniques:In some cases, surgeons may use smaller incisions and video-assisted technologies to repair VSDs. These approaches may involve smaller scars and potentially shorter recovery times.

4. Repair Techniques:

  • Primary Closure: The surgeon directly sutures or patches the hole in the septum using synthetic materials or tissue from the patient's own body.

  • Patching: A patch, often made of a synthetic material or pericardial tissue, is used to cover and close the VSD.

5. Postoperative Monitoring:

  • After surgery, the patient is closely monitored in the intensive care unit (ICU) or a cardiac care unit.

  • Vital signs, heart function, and overall recovery are assessed.

6. Postoperative Care:

  • Medications, including antibiotics and pain relievers, are administered as needed.

  • Gradual mobilization and respiratory therapy are initiated.

  • Continuous monitoring of the patient's cardiac function, oxygen levels, and overall recovery progress.

7. Recovery and Follow-up:

  • Recovery time varies, but patients typically spend a few days in the hospital after VSD surgery.

  • Follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor the healing process and assess the long-term success of the repair.


  • While VSD surgery is generally safe and successful, complications may include bleeding, infection, arrhythmias, or incomplete closure of the VSD.

Ventricular Septal Defect surgery aims to correct the defect, alleviate symptoms, and prevent complications associated with increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries. The specific surgical approach depends on the individual patient's condition and the surgeon's expertise. It's important for patients and their families to discuss the surgical plan, potential risks, and expected outcomes with the healthcare team.

bottom of page